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Following the fall of the military regime in 1991, the new Ethiopian constitution, introduced in 1994, created a federal government structure. The federal structure is composed of nine Regional States: Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somali, Benishangul Gumuz, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gambella and Harrari and two city Administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa).
Somali region, being as a part of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is located in the eastern part of the country. It lies between 3 and 15 degrees north latitude; and 41 and 48 degrees east longitude. With a total area of around 350,000 Km2 (about 30% of the Ethiopia), it is bordered by Oromia Regional State in the West and Southwest, Afar National Regional State in the Northeast. Internationally it is bordered with Kenya in the South, Somalia in the East, and Djibouti in the north.
Somali Regional state is divided into nine administrative zones including Jijiga, Shinile, Fik, Dhagahbur, Korrahe, Warder, Goday, Afder and Liban. The nine zones are further divided into 52 woredas. The woreda is the basic decentralized administrative unit and has an administrative council composed of elected members. The capital town of the region is Jijiga, which is located in Jijiga zones
Weather is hot most of the year. Temperature ranges between 18 and 40 degrees Centigrade. Annual rainfall is also between 300 and 880 mm.
According to the 2008 released Population and Housing Census in Ethiopia, total population of Somali region is 4.4 million inhabitants (6%). Of the total, 44% and 56% are females and males respectively. The average household size is 6,6. The total urban population of the region is estimated to be only 14%. While the overwhelming majority (about 86%) of the total population is pastoralist and agro-pastoralist. The average population density is 13 persons per square km, with great variation among woredas of the region.
In Somali region, the age structure of the population has its significant, with 44% of the population under the age of 15 years; Children under the age one year and five years are 0.7% and 10% respectively. A large proportion of women (23%) are in the reproductive age group (15-49 years).Most of the people in the SNRS lead pastoral and agro-pastoral lifestyle. The main income of the region’s population is driven from livestock rearing, petty trading and small-scale farming of sorghum, maize and millet, which meet some of the consumption needs.
The design and implementation of HSDP III is also a commitment towards the achievement of MDGs by aligning HSDP III with the PASDEP; institutionalization of community health services through the implementation of HSEP (rural, urban, pastoralist and school); the conjoint Accelerated Expansion of PHC Services; implementation of Health Human Resource Development Plan, the Health Care Financing Strategy, Essential Health Service Package, Child Survival Strategy, the National Reproductive Health Strategy, and the National Health Communication Strategy.
Other policies that have important bearing on the Health Sector Development are the National Drug Policy, National HIV/AIDS Policy, National Women’s Policy and National Population Policy. Moreover, the ongoing political and administrative reforms and strategies such as Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI), Rural Development Policy and Strategy, Policy on Decentralization, Civil Service Reform and Capacity Building Programme are very important policy initiatives during the implementation of the health development programs.Somali Region, as a part of the HSDP III implementation framework, is also designed a region specific five-year Strategic Planning and Management document (SPM). All health development programs are in line with the above-mentioned health and health related policies.
Health and Health Related Policies
The Government of Ethiopia formulated the National Health Policy in 1993. The policy emanated from commitment to democracy and gives strong emphasis to the fulfillment of the needs of the less privileged rural population that constitutes about 85% of the total population in Ethiopia. The Health Policy mainly focuses on:
· Democratization and decentralization of the health system;
· Development of the preventive and promotive components of the health service;
· Ensuring accessibility of health care to all population;
· Promoting inter-sectoral collaboration, involvement of the NGOs and the private sector; and
· Promoting and enhancing national self- reliance in health development by mobilizing and efficiently utilizing internal and external resources.
· The health policy has also identified the priority intervention areas and strategies to be employed to achieve the health policy issues.
Based on the National Health Policy and strategy, a rolling Health Sector Development Programs were, designed, endorsed and started implemented. The HSDP III is the current development program that Ethiopia is under its implementations. Somali Region, as a part of the HSDP III implementation framework, is also designed a region specific five-year Strategic Planning and Management document (SPM).
Somali RHB has the vision to see a region of healthy individuals, families and communities, through a health system that is equitable, affordable, efficient, technologically appropriate, and consumer-friendly.
To increase the scope, depth and volume of basic health services; and ensuring availability, accessibility and affordability of such services to all segment of the population in Somali region.
From the perspective of the Somali RHB, the values underlying in the vision statement and the organizational mission involve a great commitment to positive change, respect, equity, efficiency, accountability and transparency through behaviour based on professional ethics, team spirit and friendliness